Xing Sheng's and Minmin Luo's groups published 'Colocalized, Bidirectional Optogenetic Modulations in Freely Behaving Mice with a Wireless Dual-Color Optoelectronic Probe' in Nature Communications



Optogenetic methods provide efficient cell-specific modulations, and the ability of simultaneous neural activation and inhibition in the same brain region of freely moving animals is highly desirable. Here we report bidirectional neuronal activity manipulation accomplished by a wireless, dual-color optogenetic probe in synergy with the co-expression of two spectrally distinct opsins (ChrimsonR and stGtACR2) in a rodent model. The flexible probe comprises vertically assembled, thin-film microscale light-emitting diodes with a lateral dimension of 125 × 180 µm2, showing colocalized red and blue emissions and enabling chronic in vivo operations with desirable biocompatibilities. Red or blue irradiations deterministically evoke or silence neurons co-expressing the two opsins. The probe interferes with dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of mice, increasing or decreasing dopamine levels. Such bidirectional regulations further generate rewarding and aversive behaviors and interrogate social interactions among multiple mice. These technologies create numerous opportunities and implications for brain research.



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