•Horizontal cousin excitatory neurons show decreased synaptic connectivity
•Horizontal cousin excitatory neurons display functional differences
•Cousin neuron functional dissimilarity contributes to interspersed map organization
•cPCDHs regulate cousin neuron functional dissimilarity and map organization
Sensory neurons in the neocortex exhibit distinct functional selectivity to constitute the neural map. While neocortical map of the visual cortex in higher mammals is clustered, it displays a striking “salt-and-pepper” pattern in rodents. However, little is known about the origin and basis of the interspersed neocortical map. Here we report that the intricate excitatory neuronal kinship-dependent synaptic connectivity influences precise functional map organization in the mouse primary visual cortex. While sister neurons originating from the same neurogenic radial glial progenitors (RGPs) preferentially develop synapses, cousin neurons derived from amplifying RGPs selectively antagonize horizontal synapse formation. Accordantly, cousin neurons in similar layers exhibit clear functional selectivity differences, contributing to a salt-and-pepper architecture. Removal of clustered protocadherins (cPCDHs), the largest subgroup of the diverse cadherin superfamily, eliminates functional selectivity differences between cousin neurons and alters neocortical map organization. These results suggest that developmental neuronal origin regulates neocortical map formation via cPCDHs.